Lack of clopidogrel pretreatment effect on the relative efficacy of bivalirudin with provisional glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade compared to heparin with routine glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade: a REPLACE-2 substudy

Jacqueline Saw, A Michael Lincoff, Walter DeSmet, Amadeo Betriu, Wolfgang Rutsch, Robert G Wilcox, Neil S Kleiman, Kathy Wolski, Eric J Topol
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2004 September 15, 44 (6): 1194-9

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess if clopidogrel pretreatment affects the relative efficacy of bivalirudin versus heparin with glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa blockade for percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI).

BACKGROUND: Although thienopyridine pretreatment may improve clinical outcomes with PCI, it is unknown if bivalirudin's efficacy compared with heparin is dependent upon such pretreatment.

METHODS: The Randomized Evaluation in Percutaneous coronary intervention Linking Angiomax to reduced Clinical Events (REPLACE-2) trial was a double-blind, triple-dummy, randomized-controlled trial comparing heparin plus routine GP IIb/IIIa blockade (heparin group) with bivalirudin plus provisional GP IIb/IIIa blockade (bivalirudin group) during PCI. The primary end point was a composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), urgent revascularization at 30 days, and major in-hospital bleeding. The secondary end point was a 30-day composite of death, MI, and urgent revascularization. Clopidogrel pretreatment was encouraged (300 mg loading, 75 mg/day).

RESULTS: Of 6,010 patients enrolled, 5,893 received clopidogrel, with 85.8% in the bivalirudin and 84.6% in the heparin group receiving clopidogrel pretreatment. Bivalirudin (provisional GP IIb/IIIa blockade 7.2%) was noninferior to the heparin group for both primary and secondary end points. Clopidogrel pretreatment did not affect the relative efficacy of bivalirudin versus heparin with GP IIb/IIIa blockade, irrespective of pretreatment duration. Pretreatment was associated with significantly lower primary end point with bivalirudin (8.7% pretreatment vs. 12.9% no pretreatment, p = 0.007), and nonsignificantly with heparin (9.7% vs. 11.7%, respectively, p = 0.20). Multivariable models showed a trend toward lower primary and secondary end points with clopidogrel pretreatment.

CONCLUSIONS: Clopidogrel pretreatment at the doses and time administered in this trial did not influence the relative efficacy of bivalirudin versus heparin plus GP IIb/IIIa blockade for PCI. However, pretreatment was associated with a trend towards lower clinical events after PCI.

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