Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2 markedly enhances Ras-independent activation of Raf-1 protein kinase by phorbol myristate acetate and H2O2

Michael Lee, Ji-Young Kim, Wayne B Anderson
Journal of Biological Chemistry 2004 November 19, 279 (47): 48692-701
Recently we reported that simultaneous treatment of NIH 3T3 cells with the combination of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) resulted in synergistic activation of Raf-1 kinase (Lee, M., Petrovics, G., and Anderson, W. B. (2003) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 311, 1026-1033). In this study we have demonstrated that PP2 (4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine), a potent and selective inhibitor of the Src-family tyrosine kinase, greatly potentiated the ability of PMA and/or H2O2 to activate Raf-1 kinase, whereas it blocked the tyrosine phosphorylation of Raf-1. Unlike PMA/H2O2 treatment, which showed transient activation, PP2-mediated Raf-1 activation was sustained and continued to increase through 4 h of treatment. Transient transfection studies with a dominant-negative mutant of Ras (N19Ras) indicated that this PP2-induced activation of Raf-1 was Ras-independent. Moreover, PP2 showed no effect on platelet-derived growth factor-induced Raf-1 activation. Interestingly, mutation of the reported Raf-1 Src family tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site by conversion of tyrosines 340 and 341 to phenylalanine (YY340/341FF Raf) had limited effect on the ability of PP2 to induce significant stimulation of Raf-1 kinase activity. Taken together, our results suggest that a tyrosine phosphorylation event is involved in the negative feedback regulation of Raf-1. Inhibition of a Src family tyrosine kinase by PP2 appears to alleviate this tyrosine kinase-mediated inhibition of Raf-1 and allow activating modification(s) of Raf-1 to proceed. This PP2 effect resulted in significant and sustained Ras-independent activation of Raf-1 by PMA and H2O2.

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