[Comparison of autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for 140 patients with de novo acute leukemia in first complete remission]

He-hua Wang, Si-zhou Feng, Mei Wang, Jia-lin Wei, Er-lie Jiang, Li Zhang, Yong Huang, Shi-yong Zhou, Qing-guo Liu, Lu-gui Qiu, Ming-zhe Han, Wen-wei Yan
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi 2004, 25 (7): 389-92

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of patients with de novo acute leukemia (AL, no AML-M(3)) in CR(1) undergone autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT) or HLA-identical sibling allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT).

METHODS: Forty-six AL patients received allo-HSCT and 94 received auto-HSCT in CR(1). The conditioning regimens mainly consisted of TBICy, BuCy and MAC. Cyclosporine plus methotrexate, or cyclosporine alone, or FK506 alone was used for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Among auto-HSCT group, 39 patients received purged autologous bone marrow and 38 received immunotherapy and/or maintenance chemotherapy after transplant.

RESULTS: Myeloid reconstitution was achieved in all patients. After a median of 700 (range, 18 approximately 5563) days follow-up, the probabilities of leukemia-free survival (LFS) at 5 year were not significantly different in these two groups: (51.5 +/- 5.4)% for auto-HSCT group and (52.8 +/- 7.6)% for allo-HSCT group (P > 0.05). There was a lower cumulative relapse incidence (RI) [(26.3 +/- 6.9)% vs. (52.0 +/- 5.5)%, P > 0.05] but a significantly higher cumulative transplant-related mortality (TRM) [(37.6 +/- 7.8% vs. (14.4 +/- 4.1)%, P < 0.05] in the allo-HSCT group than in auto-HSCT group. Among auto-HSCT group, the patients received purged autografts and/or post-transplant therapy had significantly better LFS and lower RI (P < 0.05) than those received unpurged autografts or no post-transplant treatments [5-y LFS: (62.8 +/- 6.8)% and (38.4 +/- 8.4)%; RI: (37.7 +/- 6.8)% and (74.2 +/- 8.7)%, respectively].

CONCLUSION: The long-term LFS of auto-HSCT was comparable to that of allo-HSCT in the management of patients with AL in CR(1), because autograft purging and post-transplant treatment can significantly decrease relapse of auto-HSCT patients and auto-HSCT has lower therapy-related toxicities.

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