MyD88 but not TRIF is essential for osteoclastogenesis induced by lipopolysaccharide, diacyl lipopeptide, and IL-1alpha

Nobuaki Sato, Naoyuki Takahashi, Koji Suda, Midori Nakamura, Mariko Yamaki, Tadashi Ninomiya, Yasuhiro Kobayashi, Haruhiko Takada, Kenichiro Shibata, Masahiro Yamamoto, Kiyoshi Takeda, Shizuo Akira, Toshihide Noguchi, Nobuyuki Udagawa
Journal of Experimental Medicine 2004 September 6, 200 (5): 601-11
Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) plays essential roles in the signaling of the Toll/interleukin (IL)-1 receptor family. Toll-IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-beta (TRIF)-mediated signals are involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced MyD88-independent pathways. Using MyD88-deficient (MyD88-/-) mice and TRIF-deficient (TRIF-/-) mice, we examined roles of MyD88 and TRIF in osteoclast differentiation and function. LPS, diacyl lipopeptide, and IL-1alpha stimulated osteoclastogenesis in cocultures of osteoblasts and hemopoietic cells obtained from TRIF-/- mice, but not MyD88-/- mice. These factors stimulated receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand mRNA expression in TRIF-/- osteoblasts, but not MyD88-/- osteoblasts. LPS stimulated IL-6 production in TRIF-/- osteoblasts, but not TRIF-/- macrophages. LPS and IL-1alpha enhanced the survival of TRIF-/- osteoclasts, but not MyD88-/- osteoclasts. Diacyl lipopeptide did not support the survival of osteoclasts because of the lack of Toll-like receptor (TLR)6 in osteoclasts. Macrophages expressed both TRIF and TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM) mRNA, whereas osteoblasts and osteoclasts expressed only TRIF mRNA. Bone histomorphometry showed that MyD88-/- mice exhibited osteopenia with reduced bone resorption and formation. These results suggest that the MyD88-mediated signal is essential for the osteoclastogenesis and function induced by IL-1 and TLR ligands, and that MyD88 is physiologically involved in bone turnover.

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