Diversity in metabolite production by Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium poae, and Fusarium sporotrichioides

Ulf Thrane, Andreas Adler, Per-Erik Clasen, Fabio Galvano, Wenche Langseth, Hans Lew, Antonio Logrieco, Kristian Fog Nielsen, Alberto Ritieni
International Journal of Food Microbiology 2004 September 15, 95 (3): 257-66
The production of mycotoxins and other metabolites by 109 strains of Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium poae, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and F. kyushuense was investigated independently in four laboratories by liquid or gas chromatography analyses of cultural extracts with UV diode array, electron capture, or mass spectrometric detection systems. From the compiled results, it was found that F. langsethiae consistently produced the trichothecenes diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), T-2 toxin (T-2), HT-2 toxin (HT-2), and neosolaniol (NEO) and, to a lesser extent, some additional trichothecene derivatives. F. langsethiae also produced culmorins, chrysogine (CHRYS), aurofusarin (AUF), and enniatin (EN). F. sporotrichioides showed a metabolite profile similar to that of F. langsethiae, while F. poae had a different profile as 41 of 49 strains produced nivalenol (NIV) and other 8-keto trichothecenes, in addition to DAS and derivatives of this metabolite. Only a trace amount of NIV was detected from one strain of F. kyushuense. In summary, all the three core taxa of this joint study were found to produce trichothecenes. Fusarin C (F-C) was not detected from F. langsethiae, but it was produced by F. poae and F. sporotrichioides. Aurofusarin was only detected from a few strains of F. langsethiae, while nearly all strains of F. poae and F. sporotrichioides produced this compound. In contrast, chrysogine was not detected from F. poae, but was produced by the other two taxa. Production of enniatins was scattered among the three main taxa of this study, whereas beauvericin (BEA) was produced by many strains of F. poae and F. sporotrichioides. Only one odd strain of F. langsethiae (IBT 9959) produced beauvericin. However, the status of this strain is uncertain. By a polyphasic approach using species-specific metabolite profiles, the fruity odour of F. poae, and morphological observations, it was concluded that F. langsethiae, F. poae, and F. sporotrichioides should be regarded as three significant taxa at a species level.

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