REVIEW
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Medical aspects of biologic toxins.

Biologic toxins are molecules produced by living organisms that are poisonous to other species, such as humans. Some biologic toxins are so potent and relatively easy to produce that they have been classified as biothreat agents. These include the botulinum neurotoxins, ricin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B, and Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin. This article focuses on these four biothreat toxins and their medical aspects. The majority of the article is spent on the botulinum neurotoxins, because these are the most poisonous substances known and are the only toxins classified as Category A threat agents-the highest level of threat agent. The remainder of the article is devoted to sections on the other three biothreat toxins: ricin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B, and C perfringens epsilon toxin.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app