Fluid overload before continuous hemofiltration and survival in critically ill children: a retrospective analysis

Jason A Foland, James D Fortenberry, Barry L Warshaw, Robert Pettignano, Robert K Merritt, Micheal L Heard, Kris Rogers, Chris Reid, April J Tanner, Kirk A Easley
Critical Care Medicine 2004, 32 (8): 1771-6

OBJECTIVE: Continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) is used for renal replacement and fluid management in critically ill children. A previous small study suggested that survival was associated with less percent fluid overload (%FO) in the intensive care unit (ICU) before hemofiltration. We reviewed our experience with a large series of pediatric CVVH patients to evaluate factors associated with outcome.

DESIGN: Retrospective chart review.

SETTING: Tertiary children's hospital.

PATIENTS: CVVH pediatric ICU patients from November 1997 to January 2003.


MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: %FO was defined as total fluid input minus output (up to 7 days before CVVH for both hospital stay and ICU stay) divided by body weight. One hundred thirteen patients received CVVH; 69 survived (61%). Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) was present in 103 patients; 59 survived (57%). Median patient age was 9.6 yrs (25th, 75th percentile: 2.5, 14.3). Median %FO was significantly lower in survivors vs. nonsurvivors for all patients (7.8% [2.0, 16.7] vs. 15.1% [4.9, 25.9]; p =.02] and in patients with > or =3-organ MODS (9.2% [5.1,16.7] vs. 15.5% [8.3, 28.6]; p =.01). The Pediatric Risk of Mortality Score III at CVVH initiation also was associated with survival in these groups, but by multivariate analysis, %FO was independently associated with survival in patients with > or =3-organ MODS (p =.01).

CONCLUSIONS: Survival in critically ill children receiving CVVH in this large series was higher than in previous reports. CVVH survival may be associated with less %FO in patients with > or =3-organ MODS. Prospective studies are necessary to determine whether earlier use of CVVH to control fluid overload in critically ill children can improve survival.

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