Intermediate state representation approach to physical properties of electronically excited molecules

J Schirmer, A B Trofimov
Journal of Chemical Physics 2004 June 22, 120 (24): 11449-64
Propagator methods provide a direct approach to energies and transition moments for (generalized) electronic excitations from the ground state, but they do not usually allow one to determine excited state wave functions and properties. Using a specific intermediate state representation (ISR) concept, we here show how this restriction can be overcome in the case of the algebraic-diagrammatic construction (ADC) propagator approach. In the ISR reformulation of the theory the basic ADC secular matrix is written as a representation of the Hamiltonian (or the shifted Hamiltonian) in terms of explicitly constructable states, referred to as intermediate (or ADC) states. Similar intermediate state representations can be derived for operators other than the Hamiltonian. Together with the ADC eigenvectors, the intermediate states give rise to an explicit formulation of the excited wave functions and allow one to calculate physical properties of excited states as well as transition moments for transitions between different excited states. As for the ground-state excitation energies and transition moments, the ADC excited state properties are size consistent so that the theory is suitable for applications to large systems. The established hierarchy of higher-order [ADC(n)] approximations, corresponding to systematic truncations of the IS configuration space and the perturbation-theoretical expansions of the ISR matrix elements, can readily be extended to the excited state properties. Explicit ISR matrix elements for arbitrary one-particle operators have been derived and coded at the second-order [ADC(2)] level of theory. As a first computational test of the method we have carried out ADC(2) calculations for singlet and triplet excited state dipole moments in H(2)O and HF, where comparison to full CI results can be made. The potential of the ADC(2) method is further demonstrated in an exploratory study of the excitation energies and dipole moments of the low-lying excited states of paranitroaniline. We find that four triplet states, T1-T4, and two singlet states, S1 and S2, lie (vertically) below the prominent charge transfer (CT) excitation, S3. The dipole moment of the S3 state (17.0D) is distinctly larger than that of the corresponding T3 triplet state (11.7D).

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