Evolution of closed urinary drainage systems use and associated factors in Spanish hospitals

A Allepuz-Palau, J Rosselló-Urgell, J Vaqué-Rafart, E Hermosilla-Pérez, J L Arribas-Llorente, J Sánchez-Payá, M Lizán-García et al.
Journal of Hospital Infection 2004, 57 (4): 332-8
Although closed urinary drainage systems (CUDS) reduce the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), open systems are still used in Spain. The object of this work was to describe the progress of CUDS use and factors associated with the drainage system type used in Spanish hospitals. The databases of the EPINE study (Study of Prevalence of Nosocomial Infections in Spain) from 1990 to 2000 were used. The EPINE study includes hospitalized patients of all ages in acute-care Spanish hospitals. Seventy-six thousand, seven hundred and eighty-eight catheterized patients were studied, and the whole database was used for the trend analysis of global hospital-acquired infection (HAI). The patient and the hospital were the two units of observation used in the analysis. Full implementation was defined as 90% CUDS use. A logistic regression model was applied to study factors influencing the use of CUDS and to determine prevalence trend. An odds ratio (OR) >1 indicates an incremental trend. The Pearson correlation coefficient between annual percentage of CUDS use and CAUTI prevalence was calculated. Variables for the year 2000 were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test between hospitals with and without full implementation. The prevalence of urinary catheterized patients in Spain increased from 12.4% in 1990 to 15.2% in 2000 (OR 1.019, 95% CI 1.016-1.021). The proportion of CUDS used increased from 50.6% in 1990 to 70% in 2000 (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.095-1.104) and correlated with a significant decrease of UTIs (r = 0.65, P = 0.03). In 1990, 28.5% of hospitals had full implementation of CUDS and by 2000 this had risen to 40.3% (OR 1.093, 95% CI 1.06-1.127). Patients in medium (200-500 beds) and large (>500 beds) hospitals, as well as those with three of more diagnoses and two or more intrinsic risk factors had an increased probability of having a CUDS, whereas being hospitalized in areas other than intensive care, being male and less than 65 years old were associated with a lower probability of CUDS use. The median prevalence of catheterized patients in hospitals with full implementation, was significantly lower than in those without it (P = 0.049). Although CUDS use is increasing, there is still much work required to reach full implementation. Keeping CUDS for more severely ill patients may reflect a higher concern over the consequences of UTI in these patients. Nevertheless, it is necessary to change a practice that exposes patients to a known UTI risk factor and reach a consensus on indications for catheter insertion.

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