Paraneoplastic manifestations of lymphoma.
Paraneoplastic syndromes are manifestations of malignancies that have produced effects that are distant from the primary tumor or metastases. Paraneoplastic syndromes are not caused by local effects of compression or infiltration into tissues, but are generally due to ectopic hormone production, autoimmune phenomena, or overproduction of cytokines. Paraneoplasia may be the presenting symptom of underlying malignancy and can affect almost any organ system, such as the neurologic syndromes associated with small-cell lung cancer or hypercalcemia associated with squamous cell carcinomas. Lymphoproliferative disorders are also associated with many paraneoplastic disorders; however, to date, most published information has been in the form of case reports and series of small numbers of patients. In this review, the most common paraneoplastic syndromes associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease will be discussed.
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