Thromboxane A2 receptor signaling inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial cell differentiation and migration

Anthony W Ashton, J Anthony Ware
Circulation Research 2004 August 20, 95 (4): 372-9
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important patho-physiological mediator of angiogenesis. VEGF-induced endothelial cell (EC) migration and angiogenesis often occur in complicated environments containing multiple agents capable of modifying the response. Thromboxane (TX) A2 is released from multiple cell types and is a prime mediator of pathogenesis of many vascular diseases. Human EC express both TXA2 receptor (TP) isoforms; however, the effects of individual TP isoforms on VEGF-induced EC migration and angogenesis are unknown. We report here that the TXA2 mimetic [1S-(1alpha, 2beta(5Z), 3alpha(1E, 3R), 4alpha]-7-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-(4'-iodophenoxy)-1-butenyl)-7-oxab icyclo-[2.2.1]heptan-2yl]-5'-heptenoic acid (IBOP) (100 nmol/L) is a potent antagonist (IC50 30 nmol/L) of VEGF-induced EC migration and differentiation. TPbeta, but not TPalpha, expression is required for the inhibition of VEGF-induced migration and angiogenesis. IBOP costimulation suppressed nitric oxide (NO) release from VEGF-treated EC through decreased activation of Akt, eNOS, and PDK1. TPbeta costimulation also ablated the increase in focal adhesion formation in response to VEGF. This mechanism was characterized by decreased recruitment of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and vinculin to the alpha(v)beta3 integrin and reduced FAK and Src activation in response to VEGF. Addition of NO donors together with transfection of a constitutively active Src construct could circumvent the blockade of VEGF-induced migration by TP; however, neither intervention alone was sufficient. Thus, TP stimulation appears to limit angiogenesis, at least in part, by inhibiting the pro-angiogenic cytokine VEGF. These data further support a role for antagonism of TP activation in enhancing the angiogenic response in tissues exposed to elevated TXA2 levels in which revascularization is important.

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