Differential biological effects of 1,25-dihydroxyVitamin D3 on melanoma cell lines in vitro

Markus Seifert, Martin Rech, Viktor Meineke, Wolfgang Tilgen, Jörg Reichrath
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2004, 89 (1): 375-9
1,25-DihydroxyVitamin D(3) and analogs have been shown to inhibit proliferation and to induce differentiation in different cell types, including human melanocytes. However, various tumor cell lines that fail to respond to the antiproliferative effects of Vitamin D analogs have also been reported. Using real-time PCR (LightCycler), we have compared mRNA expression of Vitamin D receptor (VDR), Vitamin D-25-hydroxylase (25-OHase), 25-hydroxyVitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-OHase), and 1,25-dihydroxyVitamin D-24-hydroxylase (24-OHase) in a melanoma cell line that responds to antiproliferative effects of Vitamin D (MeWo) with a non-responsive melanoma cell line (SkMel5). Additionally, modulation of cell proliferation by calpain inhibitors, as well as regulation of mRNA expression of VDR, 1alpha-OHase, and 24-OHase genes by Vitamin D analogs were assessed in melanoma cell lines in vitro using a WST-1 based colorimetric assay and real-time PCR, respectively. RNA for VDR, 25-OHase, 1alpha-OHase, and 24-OHase was detected in melanoma cell lines. In contrast to SkMel5 cells, treatment of MeWo cells with calcitriol resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mRNA for VDR and 24-OHase as well as in a suppression of cell proliferation (up to approximately 50%). Our findings demonstrate that local synthesis or metabolism of Vitamin D metabolites may be of importance for growth regulation of MM and melanoma cell lines. Additionally, metastasizing MM represents a promising target for palliative treatment with new Vitamin D analogs that exert little calcemic side effects or for pharmacological modulation of calcitriol synthesis/metabolism in these tumors.

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