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Spondyloarthropathies.

The spondyloarthropathies include ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis (including Reiter's syndrome), psoriatic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease-associated spondyloarthropathy, and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy. These diseases are linked by their association with the HLA-B27 gene and by the presence of enthesitis as the basic pathologic lesion. Additional clinical features include inflammatory back pain, dactylitis, and extra-articular manifestations such as uveitis and skin rash. The history and physical examination are the major diagnostic tools, although radiographic evidence of sacroiliitis is helpful. Therapeutic options include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, sulfasalazine, methotrexate, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors. Early recognition and appropriate treatment can help to limit disability.

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