JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Diseases associated with the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor

R V Thakker
Cell Calcium 2004, 35 (3): 275-82
15200151
The human calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a 1078 amino acid cell surface protein, which is predominantly expressed in the parathyroids and kidney, and is a member of the family of G protein-coupled receptors. The CaSR allows regulation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and renal tubular calcium reabsorption in response to alterations in extracellular calcium concentrations. The human CaSR gene is located on chromosome 3q21.1 and loss-of-function CaSR mutations have been reported in the hypercalcaemic disorders of familial benign (hypocalciuric) hypercalcaemia (FHH, FBH or FBHH) and neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT). However, some individuals with loss-of-function CaSR mutations remain normocalcaemic. In addition, there is genetic heterogeneity amongst the forms of FHH. Thus, the majority of FHH patients have loss-of-function CaSR mutations, and this is referred to as FHH type 1. However, in one family, the causative gene for FHH is located on 19p13, referred to as FHH type 2, and in another family it is located on 19q13, referred to as FHH type 3. Gain-of-function CaSR mutations have been shown to result in autosomal dominant hypocalcaemia with hypercalciuria (ADHH) and Bartter's syndrome type V. CaSR auto-antibodies have been found in FHH patients who did not have loss-of-function CaSR mutations, and in patients with an acquired form (i.e. autoimmune) of hypoparathyroidism. Thus, abnormalities of the CaSR are associated with three hypercalcaemic and three hypocalcaemic disorders.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
15200151
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"