The Women's Health Initiative could not have detected cardioprotective effects of starting hormone therapy during the menopausal transition

Frederick Naftolin, Hugh S Taylor, Richard Karas, Eliot Brinton, Isadore Newman, Thomas B Clarkson, Michael Mendelsohn, Rogerio A Lobo, Debra R Judelson, Lila E Nachtigall, Christopher B Heward, Harvey Hecht, Michael R Jaff, S Mitchell Harman et al.
Fertility and Sterility 2004, 81 (6): 1498-501
The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized controlled trial failed to show cardioprotection by estrogen plus progestin treatment of postmenopausal women. But by design, the WHI population was 10-fold underpowered to show cardioprotection of women starting hormone treatment during the menopausal transition. Thus, observational studies that showed cardioprotection in such women remain the only applicable clinical guide to this issue. Randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to test cardioprotection in women starting treatment during the menopausal transition.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"