Compliant positioning of total hip components for optimal range of motion

K-H Widmer, B Zurfluh
Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society 2004, 22 (4): 815-21
Impingement between femoral neck and endoprosthetic cup is one of the causes for dislocation in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Choosing a correct combined orientation of both components, the acetabular cup and femoral stem, in manual or computer-assisted implantation will yield a maximized, stable range of motion (ROM) and will reduce the risk for dislocation. A mathematical model of a THA was developed to determine the optimal combination of cup inclination, cup anteversion, and stem antetorsion for maximizing ROM and minimizing the risk for cup-neck impingement. Single and combined hip joint motions were tested. A radiographic definition was used for component orientation. Additional parameters, such as stem-neck (CCD) angle, head-neck ratio, and the design of the acetabular opening, were also considered. The model showed that a maximized and safe ROM requires compliant, well-defined combinations of cup inclination, cup anteversion, and stem antetorsion depending on the intended ROM. Radiographic cup anteversion and stem antetorsion were linearly correlated. Additional internal rotation reduced flexion, and additional external rotation reduced extension, abduction and adduction. The articulating hemispheric surface of acetabular cups should be oriented between 40 degrees and 45 degrees of radiographic inclination, between 20 degrees and 28 degrees of radiographic cup anteversion, and should be combined with stem antetorsion so that the sum of cup anteversion plus 0.7 times the stem antetorsion equals 37 degrees. Final component orientation must also consider cup containment, implant impingement with bone and soft tissue, and preoperative skeletal contractures or deformities to achieve the optimal compromise for each patient.

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