Neuroprotective effect of 4-amino-1,8-napthalimide, a poly(ADP ribose) polymerase inhibitor in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rat

Dhiraj G Kabra, Meenakshisundaram Thiyagarajan, Chaman L Kaul, Shyam S Sharma
Brain Research Bulletin 2004 February 1, 62 (5): 425-33
In the present study, neuroprotective effect of 4-amino-1,8-napthalimide (4-ANI), a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor was investigated in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)-induced focal ischemia. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 22 h of reperfusion. After 22 h of reperfusion rats were evaluated for cerebral infarction, neurological deficits, brain NAD levels, and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL). Focal ischemia produced significant infarct volume (201 +/- 14 mm3), neurological scores (2 +/- 0.5) and 28 +/- 4.5% brain NAD depletion. Ischemia was associated with increased in TUNEL positive cells in brain sections indicating DNA fragmentation. 4-ANI treatment (1 and 3 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased infarct volume to 35 +/- 7% and 70 +/- 6%, respectively. Neurological functions were also significantly improved at these doses. 4-ANI (3 mg/kg) completely reversed brain NAD depletion and significantly reduced the increase in the number of TUNEL positive cells. Nevertheless, 4-ANI treatment did not alter cerebral blood flow and blood pressure. Our study suggests 4-ANI is a potent neuroprotective agent in focal cerebral ischemia and its neuroprotective effects may be attributed to reduction of NAD depletion and DNA fragmentation.

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