Anti-inflammatory effects of moxifloxacin on activated human monocytic cells: inhibition of NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and of synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines

Taly Weiss, Itamar Shalit, Hannah Blau, Sara Werber, Drora Halperin, Avital Levitov, Ina Fabian
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2004, 48 (6): 1974-82
We previously showed that moxifloxacin (MXF) exerts protective anti-inflammatory effects in immunosuppressed mice infected with Candida albicans by inhibiting interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production in the lung. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB translocation in lung epithelium and macrophages in MXF-treated mice. In the present study we investigated the effects of MXF on the production of proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-8, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta) by activated human peripheral blood monocytes and THP-1 cells and analyzed the effects of the drug on the major signal transduction pathways associated with inflammation: NF-kappaB and the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The levels of IL-8, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta secretion rose 20- and 6.7-fold in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated monocytes and THP-1 cells, respectively. MXF (5 to 20 microg/ml) significantly inhibited cytokine production by 14 to 80% and 15 to 73% in monocytes and THP-1 cells, respectively. In THP-1 cells, the level of NF-kappaB nuclear translocation increased fourfold following stimulation with LPS-phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and this was inhibited (38%) by 10 microg of MXF per ml. We then assayed the degradation of inhibitor (I)-kappaB by Western blotting. LPS-PMA induced degradation of I-kappaB by 73%, while addition of MXF (5 microg/ml) inhibited I-kappaB degradation by 49%. Activation of ERK1/2 and the 46-kDa p-JNK protein was enhanced by LPS and LPS-PMA and was significantly inhibited by MXF (54 and 42%, respectively, with MXF at 10 microg/ml). We conclude that MXF suppresses the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in human monocytes and THP-1 cells and that it exerts its anti-inflammatory effects in THP-1 cells by inhibiting NF-kappaB, ERK, and JNK activation. Its anti-inflammatory properties should be further assessed in clinical settings.

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