The adrenal glomerulosa cells is the cell type most sensitive to extracellular K+ in the mammalian organism. Its sensitivity to physiological increases in K+ concentration ([K+]) is due to the expression of the two-pore domain K+ channels TASK that gives rise to K+ conductance in the range of resting membrane potential (approximately equal to -80mV) and to mechanisms that reduce the activation threshold of T-type voltage-activated Ca2+ channels. Potassium-induced cytoplasmic Ca2+ signal activates adenylyl cyclase; induces and activates StAR, the protein that carries cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane and also enhances the expression of aldosterone synthase. The cytoplasmic Ca2+ signal is transferred into the mitochondrial matrix and enhances the reduction of mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides.
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