McLeod syndrome: a distinct form of neuroacanthocytosis. Report of two cases and literature review with emphasis on neuromuscular manifestations

T N Witt, A Danek, M Reiter, M U Heim, J Dirschinger, E G Olsen
Journal of Neurology 1992, 239 (6): 302-6
McLeod syndrome was originally described on the basis of a specific blood group phenotype with weak expression of Kell antigens. This erythrocyte abnormality also causes acanthocytosis. The haematological findings are associated with abnormalities in other organ systems, including neuromuscular manifestations. A 51-year-old patient was followed up for 11 years. He presented with persistent muscle creatine kinase elevation and progressive heart disease and later developed a slowly progressive neuropathy and choreic movements. His younger brother presented with grand mal seizures, involuntary movements and high muscle creatine kinase when aged 43 years. Clinical myopathy was absent in both, yet muscle biopsy showed mild myopathic changes. The presence of a motor axonopathy was supported by electrophysiological findings. One brother also showed sensory axonopathy. The movement disorder suggested accompanying basal ganglia dysfunction. Earlier reports of McLeod syndrome are reviewed with respect to neuromuscular involvement. Absence of the Kx membrane protein seems to be the cause of this multi-system disorder.

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