5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production through inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt activation in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages

Bong Sook Jhun, Quanri Jin, Young Taek Oh, Sung Soo Kim, Yoon Kong, Yong Ho Cho, Joohun Ha, Hyung Hwan Baik, Insug Kang
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2004 May 28, 318 (2): 372-80
5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) is an adenosine analog and a widely used activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We examined the effect of AICAR on LPS-induced TNF-alpha production in RAW 264.7 and peritoneal macrophages and its molecular mechanism in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Treatment with AICAR inhibited LPS-induced increases in TNF-alpha mRNA and protein levels in these cells. AICAR or LPS did not alter the AMPK activity as well as the phosphorylations of AMPK alpha (Thr172) and ACC (Ser79). Moreover, an adenosine kinase inhibitor 5'-iodotubercidin enhanced the suppressive effect of AICAR on TNF-alpha levels. These results suggest that the effect of AICAR on TNF-alpha suppression in RAW 264.7 cells is independent of AMPK activation. In addition, an adenosine receptor antagonist 8-SPT had no effect on AICAR-induced suppression of TNF-alpha levels. Finally, we observed that AICAR inhibited LPS-induced activation of PI 3-kinase and Akt, whereas it had no effect on the activation of p38 and ERK1/2. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory action of AICAR in RAW 264.7 macrophages is independent of AMPK activation and is associated with inhibition of LPS-induced activation of PI 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

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