JOURNAL ARTICLE

Simultaneous transesophageal Doppler assessment of coronary flow reserve in the left anterior descending artery and coronary sinus allows differentiation between proximal and non-proximal left anterior descending artery stenoses

A V Vrublevsky, A A Boshchenko, R S Karpov
European Journal of Echocardiography 2004, 5 (1): 25-33
15113009

AIM AND METHODS: The role of simultaneous transesophageal Doppler assessment of coronary flow reserve (CFR) in the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and coronary sinus (CS) in the diagnostics of hemodynamically significant LAD stenoses of various localization was studied in 16 CAD patients with angiographically proven >50% stenotic atherosclerosis of the LAD (nine--in the proximal third, seven--in the mid and/or distal third) and 23 healthy volunteers (all men). Dipyridamole was used as a stress agent. The diastolic phase of coronary flow in the LAD and the antegrade phase of coronary flow in the CS were analyzed. CFR in the LAD and CS was calculated in two ways: one--as ratio of peak hyperemic flow velocity to the peak baseline blood flow velocity (CFR by Vp); two--as ratio of volume hyperemic blood flow velocity to the volume baseline blood flow velocity (CFR by VBF). The level of the CFR <2 in both ways of calculation was diagnosed as reduced.

RESULTS: It was found that in CAD patients with LAD proximal stenosis the values of CFR in the LAD were significantly lower than those in healthy individuals by both Vp (1.87 +/- 0.43 and 3.54 +/- 0.82; P<0.001) and VBF (1.79 +/- 0.77 and 3.85 +/- 1.25; P<0.01). In proximal stenosis CFR in the LAD by Vp was significantly lower than that in non-proximal stenosis (1.87 +/- 0.43 and 3.31 +/- 1.44; P<0.05). Sensitivity and specificity of CFR <2 in the LAD by Vp in the diagnostics of LAD proximal stenosis were 56% and 97%, respectively; and CFR <2 in the LAD by VBF--89% and 93%, respectively. In CAD patients with both proximal and non-proximal LAD stenoses CFR in the CS by Vp was significantly lower than that in healthy volunteers and was 1.74 +/- 0.53, 1.63 +/- 0.30 and 2.56 +/- 0.87; P<0.05, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of CFR <2 in the CS by Vp in the diagnostics of hemodynamically significant LAD stenoses were 75% and 70%, respectively. The values of CFR in the CS by VBF in CAD patients and healthy volunteers did not differ significantly.

CONCLUSIONS: Thus, simultaneous evaluation of CFR in the LAD and CS makes it possible to diagnose hemodynamically significant LAD stenoses and to differentiate between proximal and non-proximal impairments.

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