COMPARATIVE STUDY
JOURNAL ARTICLE

Differential regulation of neutrophil-activating chemokines by IL-6 and its soluble receptor isoforms

Rachel M McLoughlin, Suzanne M Hurst, Mari A Nowell, Dean A Harris, Sankichi Horiuchi, Llinos W Morgan, Thomas S Wilkinson, Naoki Yamamoto, Nicholas Topley, Simon A Jones
Journal of Immunology 2004 May 1, 172 (9): 5676-83
15100312
Interleukin-6 signaling via its soluble receptor (sIL-6R) differentially regulates inflammatory chemokine expression and leukocyte apoptosis to coordinate transition from neutrophil to mononuclear cell infiltration. sIL-6R activities may, however, be influenced in vivo by the occurrence of two sIL-6R isoforms that are released as a consequence of differential mRNA splicing (DS) or proteolytic cleavage (PC) of the cognate IL-6R (termed DS- and PC-sIL-6R). Using human peritoneal mesothelial cells and a murine model of peritoneal inflammation, studies described in this work have compared the ability of both isoforms to regulate neutrophil recruitment. In this respect, DS- and PC-sIL-6R were comparable in their activities; however, these studies emphasized that IL-6 trans signaling differentially controls neutrophil-activating CXC chemokine expression. In vitro, stimulation of mesothelial cells with IL-6 in combination with either DS-sIL-6R or PC-sIL-6R showed no induction of CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)1 (GRO alpha) and CXCL8 (IL-8), whereas both isoforms enhanced CXCL5 (ENA-78) and CXCL6 (granulocyte chemotactic protein-2) expression. Moreover, when complexed with IL-6, both isoforms specifically inhibited the IL-1 beta-induced secretion of CXCL8. These findings were paralleled in vivo, in which induction of peritoneal inflammation in IL-6-deficient (IL-6(-/-)) mice resulted in enhanced keratinocyte-derived chemokine and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (the murine equivalent of CXCL1 and CXCL8) levels, but reduced LPS-induced CXC chemokine (the murine equivalent of CXCL5) expression. Reconstitution of IL-6 signaling in IL-6(-/-) mice with IL-6 and its soluble receptor isoforms corrected this chemokine imbalance and suppressed overall neutrophil infiltration. These data confirm that sIL-6R-mediated signaling primarily limits neutrophil influx; however, induction of CXCL5 and CXCL6 may regulate other neutrophil responses.

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