TBX5, a gene mutated in Holt-Oram syndrome, is regulated through a GC box and T-box binding elements (TBEs)

Guifeng Sun, Lisa E Lewis, Xu Huang, Quang Nguyen, Christopher Price, Taosheng Huang
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 2004 May 1, 92 (1): 189-99
TBX5 is a member of the T-box gene family and encodes a transcription factor that regulates the expression of other gene(s) in the developing heart and limbs. Mutations of TBX5 cause Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS), an autosomal dominant condition characterized by congenital heart defects and limb anomalies. How TBX5 gene expression is regulated is still largely unknown. In order to identify transcription factors regulating TBX5 expression, we examined the 5'-flanking region of the human TBX5 gene. We determined that up to 300 bp of the 5'-flanking region of the TBX5 gene was necessary for promoter activity in mouse cardiomyocyte ECL2 cells. One GC box, three potential T-box-like binding elements (TBE-A, -B, and -C), and one NKX2.5 binding site were identified. Site-directed mutagenesis of the potential binding sites revealed that the GC box, TBE-B, TBE-C, and NKX2.5 are functionally positive for the expression of TBX5. DNA footprint analysis showed that these binding regions are resistant to DNaseI digestion. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) further demonstrated the protein-DNA interactions at the GC box and the potential TBE-B, TBE-C, and NKX2.5 sites in a sequence-specific manner. The ability of TBX5 to regulate its own promoter was demonstrated by the ability of ectopically expressed human TBX5 to increase reporter expression. We conclude that the GC box, T-box-like binding elements, and NKX2.5 binding site play important roles in the regulation of TBX5 expression, and that TBX5 is likely to be autoregulated as part of the mechanism of its transcription.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"