Causes and prognosis of nontraumatic acute renal failure requiring dialysis in adult patients with and without diabetes

Bernhard Schmekal, Robert Pichler, Georg Biesenbach
Renal Failure 2004, 26 (1): 39-43
Despite advanced techniques of renal replacement therapy the overall mortality of patients with ARF is still high. The majority of patients with ARF requiring dialysis are those with nontraumatic ARF. In a retrospective study we compared the causes of nontraumatic ARF, the risk factors for the development of renal failure and the mortality rates in patients with and without diabetes mellitus who received dialysis therapy in the years 1991-2000. A total of 232 patients were included in the study, 34 (14.6%) of them with and 198 patients (85.4%) without diabetes. The predominant causes of nontraumatic ARF like congestive heart failure (26.4 vs. 13.6, p < 0.05) and hypotension/hypovolemia (20.6 vs. 7.6%, p < 0.05) occurred more frequently in diabetic patients. The prevalence of sepsis (8.8 vs. 10.1%, NS), malignancy/ hypercalcemia (5.8 vs. 11.6%, NS) and other causes of nontraumatic ARF were similar in both groups. The prevalence of hepato-renal syndrome (5.8 vs. 13.6%, p < 0.05) and acute kidney graft failure (2.9 vs. 15.1%, p < 0.05) was higher in the nondiabetic individuals. Patients with diabetes showed more often chronic predictors for the onset of ARF like pre-existing hypertension (93.6 vs. 51.0%, p < 0.05), congestive heart failure (44.1 vs. 14.6%, p < 0.005), pre-existing renal insufficiency (76.4 vs. 46.9%, p < 0.05) and ACE-inhibitor therapy (32.3 vs. 9.6%, p < 0.005). Additionally, the prevalence of multiple organ failure (MOF) as prognostic factor was significantly higher in the diabetic patients (47.0 vs. 21.7%, p < 0.05). The mean number of dialyses therapy was 4.7 vs. 4.5 per patient. The overall mortality was 41.1 vs. 44.% (NS). In conclusion, the prevalence of the most common causes of nontraumatic ARF was different between the patients with and without diabetes. The diabetic individuals had more frequently predictors for the onset of ARF. The overall mortality was approximately the same in both groups.

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