Butyrate inhibits cytokine-induced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression in cultured endothelial cells: the role of NF-kappaB and PPARalpha

Danuta Zapolska-Downar, Aldona Siennicka, Mariusz Kaczmarczyk, Blanka Kołodziej, Marek Naruszewicz
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 2004, 15 (4): 220-8
Adhesion and migration of leukocytes into the surrounding tissues is a crucial step in inflammation, immunity, and atherogenesis. Expression of cell adhesion molecules by endothelial cells plays a leading role in this process. Butyrate, a natural short-chain fatty acid produced by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber, has been attributed with anti-inflammatory activity in inflammatory bowel disease. Butyrate in vitro is active in colonocytes and several other cell types. We have studied the effect of butyrate on expression of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecules by cytokine-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Pretreatment of HUVEC with butyrate-inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha)-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Butyrate at 10 mM/L inhibited interleukin-1 (IL-1)-stimulated VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. The effect of butyrate on cytokine-stimulated VCAM-1 expression was more pronounced than in the case of ICAM-1. Butyrate decreased TNFalpha-induced expression of mRNA for VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Suppressed expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 was associated with reduced adherence of monocytes and lymphocytes to cytokine-stimulated HUVEC. Butyrate inhibited TNFalpha-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in HUVEC. Finally, butyrate enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) expression in HUVEC. These results demonstrate that butyrate may have anti-inflammatory properties not only in colonocytes but also in endothelial cells. The anti-inflammatory and (perhaps) antiatherogenic properties of butyrate may partly be attributed to an effect on activation of NF-kappaB and PPARalpha and to the associated expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. The present findings support further investigations on the therapeutic benefits of butyrate in several pathological events involving leukocyte recruitment.

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