rhBMP-2 significantly enhances guided bone regeneration

Ulf M E Wikesjö, Mohammed Qahash, Robert C Thomson, Alonzo D Cook, Michael D Rohrer, John M Wozney, W Ross Hardwick
Clinical Oral Implants Research 2004, 15 (2): 194-204

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown a limited potential for bone augmentation following guided bone regeneration (GBR) in horizontal alveolar defects. Surgical implantation of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in an absorbable collagen sponge carrier (ACS) significantly enhances bone regeneration in such defects; however, sufficient quantities of bone for implant dentistry are not routinely obtained. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of rhBMP-2/ACS to enhance GBR using a space-providing, macro-porous expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) device.

METHODS: Bilateral, critical size, supra-alveolar, peri-implant defects were surgically created in four Hound Labrador mongrel dogs. Two turned and one surface-etched 10-mm titanium dental implant were placed 5 mm into the surgically reduced alveolar ridge creating 5-mm supra-alveolar defects. rhBMP-2/ACS (rhBMP-2 at 0.2 mg/ml) or buffer/ACS was randomly assigned to left and right jaw quadrants in subsequent animals. The space-providing, macro-porous ePTFE device was placed to cover rhBMP-2/ACS and control constructs and dental implants. Gingival flaps were advanced for primary wound closure. The animals were euthanized at 8 weeks postsurgery for histologic and histometric analysis.

RESULTS: Bone formation was significantly enhanced in defects receiving rhBMP-2/ACS compared to control. Vertical bone gain averaged (+/- SD) 4.7 +/- 0.3 and 4.8 +/- 0.1 mm, and new bone area 10.3 +/- 2.0 and 8.0 +/- 2.5 mm2 at turned and surface-etched dental implants, respectively. Corresponding values for the control were 1.8 +/- 2.0 and 1.3 +/- 1.3 mm, and 1.8 +/- 1.3 and 1.2 +/- 0.6 mm2. Bone-implant contact in rhBMP-2-induced bone averaged 6.4 +/- 1.4% and 9.6 +/- 7.5% for turned and surface-etched dental implants, respectively (P=0.399). Corresponding values for the control were 14.6 +/- 19.4% and 23.7 +/- 9.7% (P=0.473). Bone-implant contact in resident bone ranged between 43% and 58% without significant differences between dental implant surfaces.

CONCLUSIONS: rhBMP-2/ACS significantly enhances GBR at turned and surface-etched dental implants. The dental implant surface technology does not appear to substantially influence bone formation.

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