Characterizing vortex ring behavior during ventricular filling with Doppler echocardiography: an in vitro study

Jason Cooke, Jean Hertzberg, Matthieu Boardman, Robin Shandas
Annals of Biomedical Engineering 2004, 32 (2): 245-56
Doppler ultrasound color M-mode imaging (CMM) has been proposed as a noninvasive means of quantifying diastolic function by measuring flow propagation into the left ventricle. However, the relationship between CMM-derived parameters and underlying fluid dynamics is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to couple high-resolution velocimetry measurements with ultrasound Doppler and CMM measurements in order to shed light on the relationship between CMM flow propagation and inflow dynamics using a simple yet highly reproducible in vitro model of left ventricular inflow. Two Reynolds number conditions were analyzed: 4000 and 6000. Both conditions produced starting jets that formed vortex rings. Average (N = 5) CMM centerline velocities were in agreement with DPIV centerline velocities, although large uncertainty in CMM data was present (uncertainty +/- 10 cm s(-1)). Two flow propagation parameters were extracted from the CMM data: the first utilized an isovelocity as the marker of flow propagation; the second used local peak velocity as the marker. The isovelocity technique followed the flow proximal to the vortex (wavefront) while the peak velocity method followed peak vorticity, and therefore vortex propagation, closely. We conclude that CMM imaging, while limited in measuring absolute velocities, can be utilized to assess inflow vortex ring properties, and thereby provide useful information on diastolic function.


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