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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Intraoperative echocardiography for diagnosis and treatment of aortic dissection. Utility of color flow mapping for surgical decision making in acute stage

S Kyo, S Takamoto, R Omoto, M Matsumura, S Kimura, K Neya, H Adachi, Y Yokote
Herz 1992, 17 (6): 377-89
1483626
In the past eight years until July 1992, 92 patients were admitted in the acute state of aortic dissection within two weeks from the onset of symptoms. 41 were diagnosed as Stanford type A and 51 were type B by transthoracic and transesophageal echography, computer tomography, and surgery. Sensitivity of transesophageal echography to detect the intimal flap and the false lumen was 97.6% in patients with Stanford type A and 100% in patients with Stanford type B. The surgical decision making has been mostly depending on the transesophageal echographic diagnosis. When the intimal flap was detected in the ascending aorta (Stanford type A) surgery was performed in emergency regardless of any evidence of rupture, cardiac tamponade, and severe aortic regurgitation. When the aortic dissection was detected only in the descending aorta (Stanford type B) the main course of therapeutic strategy in our institute was medical treatment. Surgery was performed on 37 patients of type A and nine patients of type B with mortality of 18.9% and 55.5% respectively. Four patients of type A and 42 patients of type B were treated medically with a mortality of 75.0% and 2.2% respectively. The relatively large leakages from the anastomosis of the aortic clamp site were repaired secondarily in two patients, and fenestration of the superior mesenteric artery was performed on one patient due to ischemia of the small intestine depending on the intraoperative direct scanning of color flow mapping. Coronary artery involvement of dissection was strongly suspected in two patients by intraoperative transesophageal echography and aortocoronary bypass grafting was performed on these patients. Perfusion problems was encountered in five of 37 patients with type A aortic dissection (13.5%) during cardiopulmonary bypass. Intraoperative transesophageal echography could clearly detect the hemodynamic changes in the descending aorta resulting from inadequate perfusion which was useful for the management of perfusion control during cardiopulmonary bypass. Secondary repair of the aortic arch was required due to ischemia of the aortic arch vessels in two patients after the primary surgery. The extension of the dissection into the aortic arch vessels can be promptly diagnosed with the combination of transesophageal echography and transcutaneous echography. In conclusion, transesophageal Doppler echography is the most rapid diagnostic tool for decision making in acute aortic dissection, and intraoperative transesophageal echo can provide useful information to resolve the perfusion difficulties during cardiopulmonary bypass.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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