Induction of redox imbalance and apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells by the novel triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid

Takashi Ikeda, Yukiko Nakata, Fumihiko Kimura, Ken Sato, Kenneth Anderson, Kazuo Motoyoshi, Michael Sporn, Donald Kufe
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 2004, 3 (1): 39-45
The synthetic oleanane triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO) and its chemical derivatives induce differentiation and apoptosis of human leukemia cells. The precise mechanisms responsible for the effects of CDDO, however, remain unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of CDDO and its C-28 imidazolide ester (CDDO-Im) on apoptosis of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. The results show that both CDDO and CDDO-Im are potent inducers of MM cell apoptosis and that CDDO-Im is more active than CDDO. CDDO-Im treatment was associated with (a) depletion of glutathione, (b) increases in reactive oxygen species, (c) a reduction of the Fas-associated death domain (FADD)-like interleukin-1-converting enzyme (FLICE) inhibitory protein, (d) activation of caspase-8, and (e) a decrease of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. The reducing agents, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, DTT, and catalase inhibited each of these CDDO-Im-induced proapoptotic signals. Inhibition of caspase-8 with z-IETD-fmk also abrogated CDDO-Im-induced decreases of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and inhibited apoptosis. These results demonstrate that CDDO-Im disrupts intracellular redox balance and thereby activates the extrinsic caspase-8-dependent apoptotic pathway. We further show that CDDO-Im induces apoptosis of primary MM cells at submicromolar concentrations and that MM cells are more sensitive to this agent than normal bone marrow mononuclear cells. These results suggest that CDDO compounds have potential as new agents for the treatment of MM.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"