JOURNAL ARTICLE

Homocysteine increases the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor by a mechanism involving endoplasmic reticulum stress and transcription factor ATF4

C Nathaniel Roybal, Shujie Yang, Chiao-Wang Sun, Diego Hurtado, David L Vander Jagt, Tim M Townes, Steve F Abcouwer
Journal of Biological Chemistry 2004 April 9, 279 (15): 14844-52
14747470
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy. We previously demonstrated that amino acid deprivation and other inducers of endoplasmic reticulum-stress (ER stress) up-regulate the expression of VEGF in the retinal-pigmented epithelial cell line ARPE-19. Because homocysteine causes ER stress, we hypothesized that VEGF expression is increased by ambient homocysteine. dl-Homocysteine-induced VEGF expression was investigated in confluent ARPE-19 cultures. Northern analysis showed that homocysteine increased steady state VEGF mRNA levels 4.4-fold. Other thiol-containing compounds, including l-homocysteine thiolactone and DTT, induced VEGF expression 7.9- and 8.8-fold. Transcriptional run-on assays and mRNA decay studies demonstrated that the increase in VEGF mRNA levels was caused by increased transcription rather than mRNA stabilization. VEGF mRNA induction paralleled that of the ER-stress gene GRP78. Homocysteine treatment caused transient phosphorylation of eIF2alpha and an increase in ATF4 protein level. Overexpression of a dominant-negative ATF4 abolished the VEGF response to homocysteine treatment and to amino acid deprivation. VEGF mRNA expression by ATF4-/- MEF did not respond to homocysteine treatment and the response was restored with expression of wild-type ATF4. These studies indicate that expression of the pro-angiogenic factor VEGF is increased by homocysteine and other thiol-containing reductive compounds via ATF4-dependent activation of VEGF transcription.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
14747470
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"