In vitro evaluation of frictional forces between archwires and ceramic brackets

Clarice Nishio, Andréa Fonseca Jardim da Motta, Carlos Nelson Elias, José Nelson Mucha
American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2004, 125 (1): 56-64
The aim of this study was to evaluate the frictional force between orthodontic brackets and archwires. The differences in magnitude of the frictional forces generated by ceramic brackets, ceramic brackets with metal reinforced slot, and stainless steel brackets in combination with stainless steel, nickel-titanium, and beta-titanium orthodontic archwires were investigated. Brackets and wire were tested with tip angulations of 0 degrees and 10 degrees. Friction testing was done with the Emic DL 10000 testing machine (São José do Rio Preto, PR, Brazil), and the wires were pulled from the slot brackets with a speed of 0.5 cm/min for 2 minutes. The ligation force between the bracket and the wire was 200 g. According to the data obtained, the brackets had frictional force values that were statistically significant in this progressive order: stainless steel bracket, ceramic bracket with a metal reinforced slot, and traditional ceramic bracket with a ceramic slot. The beta-titanium wire showed the highest statistically significant frictional force value, followed by the nickel-titanium and the stainless steel archwires, in decreasing order. The frictional force values were directly proportional to the angulation increase between the bracket and the wire.

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