JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Catheter-related superior vena cava syndrome complicated by chylothorax in a premature infant.

A premature infant experienced respiratory distress due to chylothorax. Contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography showed superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction with collaterals, and surgery confirmed an obstruction of the SVC by intravascular fibrotic tissue and thrombi caused by placement of a central venous catheter. The respiratory distress improved after surgical intervention. In the differential diagnosis of acute respiratory distress, it is necessary to consider catheter-related chylothorax and SVC syndrome when a previously stable patient has an acute change in cardiopulmonary status, regardless of the duration of catheter use. Although often considered safe and easy, central venous catheter placement may result in complications. Using appropriate catheters and choosing proper insertion sites can minimize these events. Early diagnosis and treatment can be life-saving should complications occur.

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