[Influence of pacing site on myocardial transmural dispersion of repolarization in intact normal and dilated cardiomyopathy dogs]

Rong Bai, Jun Pu, Nian Liu, Jia-Gao Lu, Qiang Zhou, Yan-Fei Ruan, Hui-Yan Niu, Lin Wang
Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica] 2003 December 25, 55 (6): 722-30
In order to verify the hypothesis that left ventricular epicardial (LV-Epi) pacing and biventricular (BiV) pacing unavoidably influence the myocardial electrophysiological characters and may result in high risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmia, we calculated, in both normal mongrel dogs and dog models with rapid-right-ventricular-pacing induced dilated cardiomyopathy congestive heart failure (DCM-CHF), the monophasic action potential duration (MAPD) and the transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) in intracardiac electrogram together with the QT interval and T(peak)-T(end) (T(p(-T(e)) interval in surface electrocardiogram (ECG) during LV-Epi and BiV pacing, compared with those during right ventricular endocardial (RV-Endo) pacing. To prepare the DCM-CHF dog model, rapid right ventricular pacing (250 bpm) was performed for 23.6+/-2.57 days to the dog. All the normal and DCM-CHF dogs were given radio frequency catheter ablation (RFCA) to His bundle with the guide of X-ray fluoroscopy. After the RFCA procedures, the animals were under the situation of complete atrioventricular block so that the canine heart rates could be voluntarily controlled in the following experiments. After a thoracotomy, ECG and monophasic action potentials (MAP) of subendocardial, subepicardial and mid-layer myocardium were recorded synchronously in 8 normal and 5 DCM-CHF dogs during pacing from endocardium of RV apex (RV-Endo), epicardium of LV anterior wall (LV-Epi) and simultaneously both of the above (biventricular, BiV), the later was similar to the ventricular resynchronization therapy to congestive heart failure patients in clinic. The Tp-Te) meant the interval from the peak to the end of T wave, which was a representative index of TDR in surface ECG. The TDR was defined as the difference between the longest and the shortest MAPD of subendocardial, subepicardial and mid-layer myocardium. Our results showed that in normal dogs, pacing participating of LV (LV-Epi, BiV) prolonged MAPD of all the three layers of the myocardium (P<0.05) with the character that mid-layer MAPD was the longest and subepicardial MAPD was the shortest following subendocardial MAPD. At the same time, TDR prolonged from 26.75 ms at RV-Endo pacing to 37.54 ms at BiV pacing and to 47.16 ms at LV-Epi pacing (P<0.001). Meanwhile in surface ECG, BiV and LV-Epi pacing resulted in a longer Tp-Te) interval compared with RV-Endo pacing (P<0.01), without parallel QT interval prolongation. Furthermore, all the DCM-CHF model dogs showed manifestations of congestive heart failure and enlargement of left ventricles. Based on the lengthening of mid-layer MAPD from 257.35 ms to 276.30 ms (P<0.0001) and increase of TDR from 27.58 ms to 33.80 ms (P equals;0.002) in DCM-CHF model due to the structural disorders of myocardium compared with the normal dog, LV-Epi and BiV pacing also led to the effect of prolonging MAPD of three layers of the myocardium and enlarging TDR. From these results we make the conclusions that prolongation of MAPD of subendocardial, subepicardial and mid-layer myocardium and increase in TDR during pacing participating of LV (LV-Epi, BiV) may contribute to the formation of unidirectional block and reentry, which play roles or at least are the high risk factors in the development of malignant ventricular arrhythmia, especially in case of structural disorders of myocardium. These findings must be considered seriously when ventricular resynchronization therapy is performed to congestive heart failure patients.

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