Cincinnati criteria for mixed mania and suicidality in patients with acute mania

Tetsuya Sato, Ronald Bottlender, Akira Tanabe, Hans-Jürgen Möller
Comprehensive Psychiatry 2004, 45 (1): 62-9
The association between suicidality and diagnoses of mixed mania, as defined using both DSM-IV and Cincinnati criteria, was studied in 576 consecutive manic inpatients. Of the whole sample, 51 (8.9%) had suicidal ideation and 13 (2.3%) attempted suicide during the index episode. Suicidality was significantly more frequent in patients with a diagnosis of mixed mania, whether the diagnosis was made by DSM-IV or Cincinnati criteria. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that an additive combination of a diagnosis of mixed mania, the depression severity, and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score was significant in predicting suicidal ideation, when using the DSM-IV criteria. A diagnosis of mixed mania alone was significant in a similar analysis, when using the Cincinnati criteria. The adjusted odds ratio for a diagnosis of mixed mania to having suicidality was much higher when using the latter criteria (4.0 v 14.0). A subsequent logistic regression analysis indicated that the Cincinnati mixed mania alone, rather than an additive combination of the DSM-IV mixed mania and the depression severity, achieved the most appropriate prediction of suicidal ideation in the sample. These findings did not differ, even when suicidality was defined as having a suicide attempt during the index episode. Our finding that suicidality was more strongly associated with Cincinnati mixed mania than with DSM-IV mixed mania is probably due to that suicidal patients who do not meet DSM-IV criteria for mixed mania are classified into mixed mania, or/and that the depressive syndrome, related to suicidality, is more appropriately assessed among manic patients, when using the Cincinnati criteria. There was no evidence that marital status, employment, a lifetime history of alcohol or substance abuse, or a history of suicide attempts before the index episode was significantly associated with suicidality in the sample. Manic patients with suicidality may have a greater severity of residual depressive symptoms at discharge.

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