Prevalence, characteristics, associated mental disorders and predictors of DSM-IV nicotine dependence

Anja Schumann, Ulfert Hapke, Christian Meyer, Hans-Jürgen Rumpf, Ulrich John
European Addiction Research 2004, 10 (1): 29-34

OBJECTIVE: Focussing on ever-smokers and comparing nicotine-dependent with nondependent subjects, we examined the characteristics, associations of nicotine dependence with other mental disorders as well as predictors of nicotine dependence. Never-smokers were not included in the reference group of the nondependent subjects, but were analyzed as a third group.

METHODS: Data of 1,636 never-smokers and 2,437 ever-smokers (i.e. 1,520 current smokers, 917 former smokers) were taken from the German Transitions in Alcohol Consumption and Smoking Study. Assessments were made using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview.

RESULTS: About a third of the ever-smokers met the criteria for nicotine dependence in some point in their lives. Nicotine-dependent smoking was significantly associated with various substance use disorders, affective disorders and anxiety disorders using nondependent smoking as a reference group. Comparing never-smokers and nondependent ever-smokers, significant associations were found for substance use disorders only. Smoking behavior variables, alcohol abuse or dependence and anxiety disorders but not sociodemographic variables and affective disorders were predictors for nicotine dependence.

CONCLUSION: Nicotine-dependent smoking is distinct from smoking alone and nicotine-dependent smokers are a characteristically different subgroup within the smoking population.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"