Cardiac troponin T and I and creatine kinase-MB as markers of myocardial injury and predictors of outcome following percutaneous coronary intervention

Thuraia Nageh, Roy A Sherwood, Beverly M Harris, Jonathan A Byrne, Martyn R Thomas
International Journal of Cardiology 2003, 92 (2): 285-93

AIMS: This study was performed to determine the most sensitive biochemical marker for the detection of cardiac myocyte damage potentially sustained during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and to assess whether such a marker can be used to identify patients at increased risk of poor subsequent clinical outcome.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 109 consecutive patients presenting with clinical stable and unstable angina and undergoing PCI at our institution. Blood was sampled for creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) and I (cTnI) immediately before and at 6, 14 and 24 h post-PCI. Five patients with raised cardiac markers pre-PCI were excluded from further analysis. The occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) was documented in-hospital, at 30 days and at long-term clinical follow up of up to 20 months. MACE occurred in 26/109 (24%) patients: death=1, QWMI=4, NQWMI=5, repeat PCI=16 (nine target vessel revascularisations and seven de-novo lesions), CABG=5. cTnI had the highest detection rate for myocardial damage, with 58 cTnI-positive patients, 38 cTnT-positive patients and 28 CK-MB-positive patients in the 24 h following PCI (Pearson's Chi square test, P<0.01). The type of interventional strategy per se was not significantly associated with post-procedural cardiac marker concentrations (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, P>0.05). There was a significant association between post-procedural cardiac marker concentrations of CK-MB, cTnT and cTnI and the occurrence of procedural angiographic complications (P=0.0003, 0.0002, 0.001, respectively). All three markers, at each sampling time point between 6 and 24 h post-PCI, showed a significant predictive relationship with MACE in-hospital and at long-term follow up (ROC curve AUC analysis, P<0.05). All three markers provided equally predictive information at each of the three post-procedural sampling time points between 6 and 24 h following PCI. All levels of cardiac marker elevation above the clinically discriminant cut-off values were significantly predictive of outcome at long-term follow up.

CONCLUSIONS: cTnI proved to be the most sensitive marker in detecting myocardial necrosis following PCI. CK-MB, cTnT and cTnI all provided similarly reliable prognostic information, with cTnT and cTnI being marginally superior in predicting MACE at follow up.

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