Prevention of atelectasis formation during induction of general anesthesia

Marco Rusca, Stefania Proietti, Pierre Schnyder, Philippe Frascarolo, Göran Hedenstierna, Donat R Spahn, Lennart Magnusson
Anesthesia and Analgesia 2003, 97 (6): 1835-9

UNLABELLED: General anesthesia promotes atelectasis formation, which is augmented by administration of large oxygen concentrations. We studied the efficacy of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) application during the induction of general anesthesia (fraction of inspired oxygen [FIO(2)] 1.0) to prevent atelectasis. Sixteen adult patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Both groups breathed 100% O(2) for 5 min and, after a general anesthesia induction, mechanical ventilation via a face mask with a FIO(2) of 1.0 for another 5 min before endotracheal intubation. Patients in the first group (PEEP group) had continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) (6 cm H(2)O) and mechanical ventilation via a face mask with a PEEP of 6 cm H(2)O. No CPAP or PEEP was applied in the control group. Atelectasis, determined by computed radiograph tomography, and analysis of blood gases were measured twice: before the beginning of anesthesia and directly after the intubation. There was no difference between groups before the anesthesia induction. After endotracheal intubation, patients in the control group showed an increase of the mean area of atelectasis from 0.8% +/- 0.9% to 4.1% +/- 2.0% (P = 0.0002), whereas the patients of the PEEP group showed no change (0.5% +/- 0.6% versus 0.4% +/- 0.7%). After the intubation with a FIO(2) of 1.0, PaO(2) was significantly higher in the PEEP group than in the control (591 +/- 54 mm Hg versus 457 +/- 99 mm Hg; P = 0.005). Atelectasis formation is prevented by application of PEEP during the anesthesia induction despite the use of large oxygen concentrations, resulting in improved oxygenation.

IMPLICATIONS: Application of positive end-expiratory pressure during the induction of general anesthesia prevents atelectasis formation. Furthermore, it improves oxygenation and probably increases the margin of safety before intubation. Therefore, this technique should be considered for all anesthesia induction, at least in patients at risk of difficult airway management during the anesthesia induction.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"