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Ocular manifestations of toxoplasmosis.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The concepts of toxoplasmosis and its ocular manifestations in humans have thoroughly changed in the past 3 years. This review addresses new epidemiologic data, specifically the occurrence of ocular disease in postnatal infections, and puts the changed views on the frequency and pathogenesis of toxoplasmic ocular manifestations into historical perspective.

RECENT FINDINGS: Newly described clinical presentations are discussed together with their recent diagnostic possibilities. The new data on congenital or postnatal acquisition of infection and their importance for ocular involvement are presented as well as the high prevalence of 79% of recurrent disease in ocular toxoplasmosis, which cannot be prevented by short-term treatments. Recently published analyses of literature showed, unexpectedly, the lack of efficacy of short-term treatments for ocular disease as well as of the long-term prenatal treatments on fetal transmission rate and the severity of congenital disease.

SUMMARY: The recent guidelines for treatment are included together with the up-to-date recommendations for the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis in the immunosuppressed host.

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