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Cyclic vomiting syndrome: a brain-gut disorder.

Despite the "black box" surrounding CVS, the authors' understanding of this clinical entity has advanced substantially in the last decade as a result of an international interdisciplinary clinical and research effort. Although CVS is now recognized as a unique clinical entity, patients still undergo innumerable hospitalizations and diagnostic tests. Although controlled therapeutic studies are lacking, reasonably effective empiric approaches have been developed by trial and error using anti-migraine, anti-emetic, and anti-epileptic regimens. The ongoing investigations of migraine mechanisms through NMR spectroscopy, mitochondrial DNA mutations and cellular energetics, corticotropin-releasing factor and gastric motility, and brainstem regulation of autonomic function may lead to breakthroughs in the understanding of and new therapies for CVS in the next decade.

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Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

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