Modulation of the lipopolysaccharide receptor complex (CD14, TLR4, MD-2) and toll-like receptor 2 in systemic inflammatory response syndrome-positive patients with and without infection: relationship to tolerance

Jacqueline E Calvano, Doreen M Agnese, John Y Um, Masahiro Goshima, Ritu Singhal, Susette M Coyle, Michael T Reddell, Ashwini Kumar, Steve E Calvano, Stephen F Lowry
Shock 2003, 20 (5): 415-9
The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor complex consists of two interacting receptors (CD14 and TLR4) and an associated protein (MD-2). When engaged by LPS, as in gram-negative infection, this complex transduces a signal detected by MyD88 and passed onward by a cascade of the IRAKs, TRAF6, and NIK, resulting in activation of NF-kappaB. A similar cascade, mediated by TLR2, occurs with ligands derived from gram-positive bacteria. In vitro studies of human monocytes have shown that TLR4 mRNA is paradoxically upregulated in response to "tolerizing" doses of LPS. This study evaluated changes in vivo of blood monocyte CD14, TLR4, TLR2, and MD-2 mRNA by reverse transcription followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction in surgical intensive care unit patients and in normal controls. In addition cell-surface receptor expression of TLR2, TLR4, and CD14 was assessed by flow cytometry in patients and normal controls. Inflammation-induced acute tolerance to LPS was evaluated by ex vivo whole blood tumor necrosis factor alpha production and was significantly reduced in patients compared with controls, confirming LPS hyporesponsiveness. Monocyte mRNA and cell-surface receptor expression of TLR4 were increased 2.4-fold (P < 0.05) and 1.7-fold (P <.002), respectively, in patients compared with normal controls. Monocyte TLR2 mRNA, MD-2 mRNA and CD14 and TLR2 cell-surface expression were not significantly changed compared with controls. The present study suggests that the acute inflammatory condition associated with peripheral cellular LPS hyporesponsiveness is neither specific to prior infectious challenge nor can be ascribed to significant alterations in expression of the cell-surface LPS binding complex proteins.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"