Homoleptic cyclometalated iridium complexes with highly efficient red phosphorescence and application to organic light-emitting diode

Akira Tsuboyama, Hironobu Iwawaki, Manabu Furugori, Taihei Mukaide, Jun Kamatani, Satoshi Igawa, Takashi Moriyama, Seishi Miura, Takao Takiguchi, Shinjiro Okada, Mikio Hoshino, Kazunori Ueno
Journal of the American Chemical Society 2003 October 22, 125 (42): 12971-9
Phosphorescence studies of a series of facial homoleptic cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes have been carried out. The complexes studied have the general structure Ir(III)(C-N)(3), where (C-N) is a monoanionic cyclometalating ligand: 2-(5-methylthiophen-2-yl)pyridinato, 2-(thiophen-2-yl)-5-trifluoromethylpyridinato, 2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)pyridinato, 2,5-di(5-methylthiophen-2-yl)pyridinato, 2-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)pyridinato, 2-(9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)pyridinato, 1-phenylisoquinolinato, 1-(thiophen-2-yl)isoquinolinato, or 1-(9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)isoquinolinato. Luminescence properties of all the complexes at 298 K in toluene are as follows: quantum yields of phosphorescence Phi(p) = 0.08-0.29, emission peaks lambda(max) = 558-652 nm, and emission lifetimes tau = 0.74-4.7 micros. Bathochromic shifts of the Ir(thpy)(3) family [the complexes with 2-(thiophen-2-yl)pyridine derivatives] are observed by introducing appropriate substituents, e.g., methyl, trifluoromethyl, or thiophen-2-yl. However, Phi(p) of the red emissive complexes (lambda(max) > 600 nm) becomes small, caused by a significant decrease of the radiative rate constant, k(r). In contrast, the complexes with the 1-arylisoquinoline ligands are found to have marked red shifts of lambda(max) and very high Phi(p) (0.19-0.26). These complexes are found to possess dominantly (3)MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) excited states and have k(r) values approximately 1 order of magnitude larger than those of the Ir(thpy)(3) family. An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) device that uses Ir(1-phenylisoquinolinato)(3) as a phosphorescent dopant produces very high efficiency (external quantum efficiency eta(ex) = 10.3% and power efficiency 8.0 lm/W at 100 cd/m(2)) and pure-red emission with 1931 CIE (Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage) chromaticity coordinates (x = 0.68, y = 0.32).


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