Space-providing expanded polytetrafluoroethylene devices define alveolar augmentation at dental implants induced by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 in an absorbable collagen sponge carrier

Ulf M E Wikesjö, Mohammed Qahash, Robert C Thomson, Alonzo D Cook, Michael D Rohrer, John M Wozney, W Ross Hardwick
Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research 2003, 5 (2): 112-23

BACKGROUND: Surgical implantation of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) in an absorbable collagen sponge carrier (ACS) significantly enhances bone regeneration in horizontal alveolar defects; however, sufficient quantities of bone for implant dentistry are not routinely obtained.

PURPOSE: The objective of this proof-of-principle study was to evaluate the potential of a space-providing macroporous expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) device to control volume and geometry of rhBMP-2/ACS-induced alveolar bone augmentation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bilateral critical-size supra-alveolar periimplant defects were created in four Hound-Labrador mongrel dogs. Two turned and one surface-etched 10 mm titanium dental implants were placed 5 mm into the surgically reduced alveolar ridge creating 5 mm supra-alveolar defects. rhBMP-2/ACS (0.4 mg rhBMP-2) was placed around the exposed dental implants. Additionally, one jaw quadrant in each animal was randomly assigned to receive the dome-shaped macroporous ePTFE device. Mucoperiosteal flaps were advanced for primary wound closure. The animals were euthanized at 8 weeks post surgery for histometric analysis.

RESULTS: The space-providing macroporous ePTFE device defined the volume and geometry of rhBMP-2/ACS-induced bone formation, whereas bone formation at sites receiving rhBMP-2/ACS alone varied considerably. Vertical bone gain at turned dental implants averaged (+/-SD) 4.7 +/-0.2 mm at sites receiving rhBMP-2/ACS and the ePTFE device compared with 3.5 +/-0.9 mm at sites receiving rhBMP-2/ACS only. The corresponding values for rhBMP-2/ACS-induced bone area were 9.6 +/- 0.7 mm2 and 7.5 +/-6.2 mm2. There was a highly significant correlation between induced bone area and the space provided by the ePTFE device (p <.001). There was no difference in induced bone density or bone-implant contact between the two technologies. These observations were consistent with those observed at surface-etched dental implants.

CONCLUSIONS: The data from this study suggest that a space-providing macroporous ePTFE device defines rhBMP-2/ACS-induced alveolar augmentation to provide adequate bone quantities for implant dentistry. The dental implant surface technology does not appear to substantially influence bone formation.

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