Nipple aspirate fluid expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor predicts breast cancer diagnosis and advanced disease

Wenyi Qin, Weizhu Zhu, Colette Wagner-Mann, Edward R Sauter
Annals of Surgical Oncology 2003, 10 (8): 948-53

BACKGROUND: Tumor expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and uPA receptor (uPAR) are breast cancer prognostic factors. Less is known about their usefulness in breast cancer diagnosis. Nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) is secreted into the breast duct and collected noninvasively, making it potentially useful both in breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis. We determined the association of uPA, PAI-1, and uPAR levels in NAF with breast cancer (1) detection and (2) advanced disease.

METHODS: A total of 88 NAF specimens were collected from women with or without breast cancer, and uPA, PAI-1, and uPAR expression were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

RESULTS: uPA and uPAR were independent predictors of cancer presence; uPAR was also an independent predictor of advanced disease stage. Higher PAI-1 expression in breast cancer that was found with univariate analysis was not observed after logistic regression was applied.

CONCLUSIONS: NAF evaluation of uPA, uPAR, and, perhaps, PAI-1 (significant only in univariate analysis) may provide useful breast cancer diagnostic and prognostic information.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"