A comparison of prediction equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate in adults without kidney disease

Julie Lin, Eric L Knight, Mary Lou Hogan, Ajay K Singh
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN 2003, 14 (10): 2573-80
The ability of the Modification of Renal Disease (MDRD) equation to predict GFR when compared with multiple other prediction equations in healthy subjects without known kidney disease was analyzed. Between May 1995 and December 2001, a total of 117 healthy individuals underwent (125)I-iothalamate or (99m)Tc-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) renal studies as part of a routine kidney donor evaluation at either Brigham and Women's Hospital or Boston Children's Hospital. On chart review, 100 individuals had sufficient data for analysis. The MDRD 1, MDRD 2 (simplified MDRD equation), Cockcroft-Gault (CG), Cockcroft-Gault corrected for GFR (CG-GFR), and other equations were tested. The median absolute difference in ml/min per 1.73 m(2) between calculated and measured GFR was 28.7 for MDRD 1, 18.5 for MDRD 2, 33.1 for CG, and 28.6 for CG-GFR in the (125)I-iothalamate group and was 31.1 for MDRD 1, 38.2 for MDRD 2, 22.0 for CG, and 31.1 for CG-GFR in the (99m)Tc-DTPA group. Bias was -0.5, -3.3, 25.6, and 5.0 for MDRD 1, MDRD 2, CG, and CG-GFR, respectively, in subjects who received (125)I-iothalamate and -33.2, -36.5, 6.0, and -15.0 for MDRD 1, MDRD 2, CG, and CG-GFR, respectively, in those who received (99m)Tc-DTPA studies. Precision testing, as measured by linear regression, yielded R(2) values of 0.04 for CG, 0.05 for CG-GFR, 0.15 for MDRD 1, and 0.14 for MDRD in those who underwent (125)I-iothalamate studies and 0.18 for CG, 0.21 for CG-GFR, 0.40 for MDRD 1, and 0.38 for MDRD 2 for those who underwent (99m)Tc-DTPA studies. The MDRD equations were more accurate within 30 and 50% of the measured GFR compared with the CG and CG-GFR equations. When compared with the CG equation, the MDRD equations are more precise and more accurate for predicting GFR in healthy adults. The MDRD equations, however, consistently underestimate GFR, whereas the CG equations consistently overestimate measured GFR in people with normal renal function. In potential kidney donors, prediction equations may not be sufficient for estimating GFR; radioisotope studies may be needed for a better assessment of GFR. Further studies are needed to derive and assess GFR prediction equations in people with normal or mildly impaired renal function.

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