The novel triterpenoid CDDO and its derivatives induce apoptosis by disruption of intracellular redox balance

Takashi Ikeda, Michael Sporn, Tadashi Honda, Gordon W Gribble, Donald Kufe
Cancer Research 2003 September 1, 63 (17): 5551-8
The novel oleanane triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO) induces apoptosis of human leukemia cells by activation of the extrinsic caspase-8 pathway. The mechanisms responsible for the proapoptotic effects of CDDO are unknown. The present studies demonstrate that CDDO activates the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in U-937 leukemia cells. The results also show that CDDO activates stress kinases by increasing levels of reactive oxygen species and decreasing intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentrations. Similar findings were obtained with the C-28 methyl ester (CDDO-Me) and C-28 imidazolide ester (CDDO-Im) derivatives. The results also demonstrate that CDDO-induced: (a) stimulation of Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase; (b) activation of caspase-8; (c) loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential; (d) release of cytochrome c; and (e) cleavage of caspase-3 are blocked by pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine and GSH but not with cysteine. In concert with these results, CDDO-induced apoptosis is also abrogated by N-acetyl-L-cysteine and GSH. These findings demonstrate that CDDO and its derivatives disrupt intracellular redox balance and thereby induce apoptosis.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"