Clinical profiles and outcomes of acute type B aortic dissection in the current era: lessons from the International Registry of Aortic Dissection (IRAD)

Toru Suzuki, Rajendra H Mehta, Hüseyin Ince, Ryozo Nagai, Yasunari Sakomura, Frank Weber, Tetsuya Sumiyoshi, Eduardo Bossone, Santi Trimarchi, Jeanna V Cooper, Dean E Smith, Eric M Isselbacher, Kim A Eagle, Christoph A Nienaber
Circulation 2003 September 9, 108 Suppl 1: II312-7

BACKGROUND: Clinical profiles and outcomes of patients with acute type B aortic dissection have not been evaluated in the current era.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Accordingly, we analyzed 384 patients (65+/-13 years, males 71%) with acute type B aortic dissection enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD). A majority of patients had hypertension and presented with acute chest/back pain. Only one-half showed abnormal findings on chest radiograph, and almost all patients had computerized tomography (CT), transesophageal echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and/or aortogram to confirm the diagnosis. In-hospital mortality was 13% with most deaths occurring within the first week. Factors associated with increased in-hospital mortality on univariate analysis were hypotension/shock, widened mediastinum, periaortic hematoma, excessively dilated aorta (>or=6 cm), in-hospital complications of coma/altered consciousness, mesenteric/limb ischemia, acute renal failure, and surgical management (all P<0.05). A risk prediction model with control for age and gender showed hypotension/shock (odds ratio [OR] 23.8, P<0.0001), absence of chest/back pain on presentation (OR 3.5, P=0.01), and branch vessel involvement (OR 2.9, P=0.02), collectively named 'the deadly triad' to be independent predictors of in-hospital death.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides insight into current-day profiles and outcomes of acute type B aortic dissection. Factors associated with increased in-hospital mortality ("the deadly triad") should be identified and taken into consideration for risk stratification and decision-making.

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