Lipoprotein receptor-mediated induction of matrix metalloproteinase by tissue plasminogen activator

Xiaoying Wang, Sun-Ryung Lee, Ken Arai, Seong-Ryong Lee, Kiyoshi Tsuji, G William Rebeck, Eng H Lo
Nature Medicine 2003, 9 (10): 1313-7
Although thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a stroke therapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, its efficacy may be limited by neurotoxic side effects. Recently, proteolytic damage involving matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated. In experimental embolic stroke models, MMP inhibitors decreased cerebral hemorrhage and injury after treatment with tPA. MMPs comprise a family of zinc endopeptidases that can modify several components of the extracellular matrix. In particular, the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 can degrade neurovascular matrix integrity. MMP-9 promotes neuronal death by disrupting cell-matrix interactions, and MMP-9 knockout mice have reduced blood-brain barrier leakage and infarction after cerebral ischemia. Hence it is possible that tPA upregulates MMPs in the brain, and that subsequent matrix degradation causes brain injury. Here we show that tPA upregulates MMP-9 in cell culture and in vivo. MMP-9 levels were lower in tPA knockouts compared with wild-type mice after focal cerebral ischemia. In human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells, MMP-9 was upregulated when recombinant tPA was added. RNA interference (RNAi) suggested that this response was mediated by the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), which avidly binds tPA and possesses signaling properties. Targeting the tPA-LRP signaling pathway in brain may offer new approaches for decreasing neurotoxicity and improving stroke therapy.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"