REVIEW
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Diagnostic and therapeutic management of cancer of an unknown primary.

Metastatic Cancer of Unknown Primary Site (CUP) accounts for approximately 3% of all malignant neoplasms and is therefore one of the 10 most frequent cancer diagnoses in man. Patients with CUP present with metastatic disease for which the site of origin cannot be identified at the time of diagnosis. It is now accepted that CUP represents a heterogeneous group of malignancies that share a unique clinical behaviour and, presumably, unique biology. The following clinicopathological entities have been recognised: (i) metastatic CUP primarily to the liver or to multiple sites, (ii) metastatic CUP to lymph nodes including the sub-sets involving primarily the mediastinal-retroperitoneal, the axillary, the cervical or the inguinal nodes, (iii) metastatic CUP of peritoneal cavity including the peritoneal papillary serous carcinomatosis in females and the peritoneal non-papillary carcinomatosis in males or females, (iv) metastatic CUP to the lungs with parenchymal metastases or isolated malignant pleural effusion, (v) metastatic CUP to the bones, (vi) metastatic CUP to the brain, (vii) metastatic neuroendocrine carcinomas and (viii) metastatic melanoma of an unknown primary. Extensive work-up with specific pathology investigations (immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, molecular diagnosis) and modern imaging technology (computed tomography (CT), mammography, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan) have resulted in some improvements in diagnosis; however, the primary site remains unknown in most patients, even on autopsy. The most frequently detected primaries are carcinomas hidden in the lung or pancreas. Several favourable sub-sets of CUP have been identified, which are responsive to systemic chemotherapy and/or locoregional treatment. Identification and treatment of these patients is of paramount importance. The considered responsive sub-sets to platinum-based chemotherapy are the poorly differentiated carcinomas involving the mediastinal-retroperitoneal nodes, the peritoneal papillary serous adenocarcinomatosis in females and the poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. Other tumours successfully managed by locoregional treatment with surgery and/or irradiation are the metastatic adenocarcinoma of isolated axillary nodes, metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of cervical nodes, or any other single metastatic site. Empirical chemotherapy benefits some of the patients who do not fit into any favourable sub-set, and should be considered in patients with a good performance status.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app