[Preoxygenation and upper airway patency control]

J L Bourgain
Annales Françaises D'anesthèsie et de Rèanimation 2003, 22 Suppl 1: 41s-52s
During preoperative assessment, risk factors of upper airway obstruction should be evaluated: respiratory insufficiency, low O(2) reserve, preoxygenation failure or difficult face mask ventilation. In healthy subjects, spontaneous breathing O(2) for 3 min is the reference method. Apnoea duration is longer after preoxygenation than after denitrogenation, even if FEO(2) and SpO(2) do not change during the two last minutes of preoxygenation. The apnea time is longer after 3 min spontaneous breathing than after four deep breaths for 1 min in most of the literature. Maximal breathing during 2 min can produce values comparable to those obtained with tidal volume breathing for 3 min. FEO(2) monitoring is helpful in the assessment of preoxygenation quality: In case of oxygenation impairment during anaesthesia induction, algorithm use is helpful. Because desperate emergencies will occur in association with anaesthesia, every location should have the immediate availability of Fastrach and trans tracheal ventilation. Every anaesthesiologist should be familiar with and well practised in a variety of airway management techniques. Teaching programs are organised in order to develop anaesthesiologist sensitisation and skill.

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